CT POSITIONING IN PLY STORE

The aplication for android can you instal in your android, this apk the explain abaout ct positioning, i have download very fast, the apk as below :
this cover the apk
 
ok, i hor my share advantage for reader

abnormal mri brain in meningitis case

This abnormal mri brain in meningitis case, infection of the meninges, may be suppurative or granulomatous.

Untitled

abnormal mri brain images of meningitis with mri, visible in arrow.

Aseptic Meningitis :

—All non-bacterial causes of meningitis, Typically less ill appearing than bacterial meningitis, Most common cause is viral, HSV,  type II, Enterovirus (coxsackie, echovirus), Affects all ages, Generally self-limited illness, Other Viral, HIV, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Arbovirus, Mumps, CMV, EBV, VZV, Adenovirus, Measles, Rubella, Rotavirus, Influenza and parainfluenza, Other infectious, Borrelia burgdorferi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Rickettsia, erlichia, brucella, Chlamydia, Fungal, Cryptococcus, Coccidiodes, Histoplasmosis, Parasitic, Angiostrongylus, Toxoplamosis,  Medication, NSAID’s , Bactrim, Pyridium, Malignancy, Lymphoma and leukemia, Malignancy, Lymphoma and leukemia, Metastatic carcinoma, Autoimmune, Sarcoid, Behcet’s, SLE

abnormal mri brain meningitis

abnormal mri brain meningitis 2

abnormal mri brain in meningitis case.

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain Neonatal meningitis

—Leading cause of newborn meningitis in developed countries

—Best diagnostic clue: Meningoencephalitis in anewborn

abnormal mri brain meningitis 2

the images of abnormal mri brain.

abnormal mri brain neonatal.

abnormal mri brain meningitis 2

abnormal mri brain meningitis 2

abnormal mri brain IN MENINGITIS CASE.

abnormal mri brain Intracranial Empyema

Abnormal mri brain Subdural empyema l

Ø collection of pus between dura and leptomeninges

Øas a complication of meningitis, paranasal sinusitis, otitis media, osteomyelitis, or a penetrating wound of the skull

Ø Frontal sinusitis is the most common cause

Ø Route: retrograde fashion through a dural sinus or through bridging veins

Ø even when small, usually cause focal neurologic deficits

Ø considered a neuro-surgical emergency because of its progressive clinical course.

ØDespite recent improvement in surgical technique and antibiotics, mortality remains high (25% to 40%).

ØComplications :venous thrombosis and infarction

abnormal mri brain meningitis 2

hypodense or isodense crescentic or lenticular area adjacent to the inner table of the skull CECT and enhancement of the medial rim may be seen

abnormal mri brain meningitis 2

abnormal mri brain, Enhancement of the margin of the empyema is characteristic better visualized with MRI than with CT

Abnormal mri brain of the empyema

abnormal mri brain Herpes encephalitis

Herpes simplex encephalitis

—most common endemic encephalitis in the USA (2 per million) and causes 10-20% of all viral encephalitis.

—Early diagnosis is important because AV therapy can decrease mortality and morbidity.

—HSV1 causes 95% of HSE. Most commonly occurs due to virus reactivation. HSV2 causes 80-90% of neonatal encephalitis

Source: Panagaria A. Neurol In. 49:360; 2001.

§Definitive diagnosis: PCR, intrathecal antibodies, brain biopsy – take time and may be false negative in early disease [1].

§Imaging helps in establishing an early diagnosis.

source > Akyldz BN Paeditr Emerg Care 24;377 :2008.

— Usually bilateral

— Hemorrhage and enhancement seen

— Basal ganglia tend to be spared or involved in contiguity with the TL.

— Pons may be involved [Tien AJR:161,1993]

MR is more sensitive and shows lesions earlier than CT or SPECT,

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain

Abnormal mri brain Of Herphes

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain Epidural Empyema

—collection of pus between the dura and calvaria,

— complication of otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, or osteomyelitis of the skull.

— not as toxic as that with subdural empyema.

—Displacement of the falx and dural sinuses away from the inner table of the skull, an important and useful sign indicating the epidural location of a collection

image

> T2-weighted MR images , A hypointense rim, representing inflamed dura, in an epidural, but not a subdural, empyema

>, epidural empyema may extend into the subgaleal space through emissary veins or adjacent

> Epidural empyema, like epidural hematoma, can across the midline but is limited by the sutures

>  In contrast, a subdural collection of any kind cannot cross the midline but is not limited by the sutures

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain EPIDURAL EMPYEMA

abnormal mri brain HSV

— Both HSV1 and 2 are commonly prevalent in Indian population. (Mixed=83%, HSV1=10%, HSV2=1%) [1]

— HSV2 along with TORCH agents are major causes of neonatal encephalitis.

— Infections result from maternal birth canal or transplacental spread

— Unlike HSV1, HSV2 infection in neonates is diffuse.

HSV 2:

— Imaging findings are nonspecific.

— CT scans in early disease may be negative or show subtle areas of low density

— Conventional MR and DWI show lesions better.

— Lesions may be multifocal involving almost any area of brain or limited to temporal lobes brainstem and cerebellum.

— Watershed infarcts may be seen

—  In-utero infections can result in microcephaly, encephalomalacia or calcification.

sOURCE )Vossough.2008. Neuroradiol 50:355

abnormal mri brain

Axial T1WI MR shows diffuse cystic encephalomalacia and prominent CSF-containing spaces

 

abnormal mri brain

Axial T2WI MR shows areas of high signal in frontal lobes WM due to acute H5V-2

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain HSV 1 AND HSV2

abnormal mri brain HIV Encephalitis

  1. —Syndrome of cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities attributed to direct HIV effect on brain, in the absence of opportunistic brain infections.
  2. —Location: Bilateral periventricular and centrum semiovale WM, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem

    Best diagnostic clue: Combination of atrophy and symmetric, periventricular or diffuse white matter (WM) disease suggests HIVE)

    abnormal mri brain

    abnormal mri brain

    Abnormal mri brain, HIV

abnormal mri brain Japanese encephalitis

  1. — mosquito borne Flaviviral encephalitis.
  2. —  Pigs and heron like birds are main amplifiers.
  3. — leading cause of acute meningoencephalitis affecting children and adults in the world.
  4. — JE is endemic to Indian subcontinent, particularly in the NE state of Assam
  5. — Epidemics occur in the summer rainy season which favor breeding of mosquitoes.
  6. — First recognized in India in 1955, Epidemics occur every year in several Indian states since the first in WB(1973).
  7. — Lesions of JE are most commonly seen in the thalami and substantia nigra,
  8. — Basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, hippocampi, midbrain, pons, medulla and cerebellum lesions are also seen.
  9. — Lesions hyperintense on T2 and FL and iso to hypo on T1 with local or generalized brain swelling.
  10. — No enhancement.
  11. — Hemorrhagic change has been reported from India.
  12. — MRI is the investigation of choice with reported sensitivity of 89-100% compared to CT (38-55%) .
  13. — DWI has been reported to help in early diagnosis and in assessing temporal evolution of lesions
  14. —  Was helpful in making an early diagnosis in JE showing additional lesions
  15. abnormal mri brainabnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain Japanese encephalitis.

abnormal mri brain Dengue

  1. —Dengue is caused by a mosquito borne flavivirus like JE. Neurologic manifestations in dengue fever, hemorrhagic fever and Shock syndrome have been thought to be due to encephalopathy
  2. —Recent reports have shown that dengue virus can cause neuroinvasion and encephalitis
  3. Lum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996;54:256 (2) Muzaffar. Sing Med J 2006;47:975abnormal mri brain

Abnormal mri brain DENGUE

abnormal mri brain Rabies encephalitis

  1. —Transmitted by bites of infected animals or by transplants. 100% fatal.
  2. —In India rabies occurs in all parts of the country except in Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar islands.
  3. abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain Rabies encephalitis

abnormal mri brain “Nipah virus encephalitis”

  1. —MR shows fairly characteristic findings with small T2 hyperintense white or gray matter lesions with transient T1 hyperintense punctate cortical lesions in subacute phase.
  2. Source (1) Lim. Radiol 2002;222:219abnormal mri brain
  3. —paramyxovirus spread to man from fruit-bats or pigs infected by fruit-bats.
  4. — Subsequent spread from man to man occurs.
  5. —First identified in Malaysia and Singapore in 1988-89, outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh (2001-4,5)and Siliguri (2001). Case fatality in India and Bangladesh was 75%.
  6. Source :(1) Halder. Ann Ind Acad Neurol 2006;9:137Abnormal mri brain Emerging viruses.

abnormal mri brain Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

  • —CT scans low-density lesions in white matter.
  • — Early involvement -asymmetrical pattern,
  • —later disease -symmetrical and diffusely confluent.
  • —Contrast enhancement is usually absent but may occur.[155.
  • —MRI shows a focal region of hypointensity in the white matter on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images
  • —. Involvement of the subcortical U-fiber is characteristic for PML, as opposed to other HIV- related encephalopathy.
  • . MRI is more sensitive than CT in detecting abnormalities.
  • abnormal mri brain
  • abnormal mri brain Progressive Multifocal

abnormal mri brain Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis

  • —affect the immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised patients
  • —cause meningoencephalitis or subacute encephalitis.
  • —CMV can produce demyelination and necrosis within the white matter.
  • —CMV is the most frequent cause of fetal and neonatal viral infection.
  • —calcifications are usually in the subependymal region, whereas in infants with toxoplasmosis, calcifications are seen everywhere, including the periventricular region.
  • — CT scans show low density in the white matter, which may or may not enhance with contrast agents
  • —. MRI shows high signal intensity in the white matter on T2-weighted and FLAIR images and is more sensitive than CT in detecting leukoencephalitis
  • abnormal mri brain

    Nonenhanced CT scans in a newborn show periventricular calcification and ventricular dilatation

    abnormal mri brain, Cytomegalovirus

abnormal mri brain stages in the evolution of cerebral abscess

  • —Early abscess (at 10 to 14 days). Formation of a collagenous capsule by fibroblasts is seen. The central necrotic area is liquefied. Surrounding edema persists.
    Mature abscess (after 14 days). A decrease in surrounding edema
  • —gliotic reaction at outer margin of the abscess capsule.
  • abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain of abscess >> The wall of the mature abscess consists of three layers: (1) an inner inflammatory layer of granulation tissue containing macrophages, (2) a middle collagenous layer, and (3) an outer gliotic layer

abnormal mri brain Cerebritis and Abscess

  • —most brain abscesses are bacterial
  • — streptococci accounting for the majority
  • —haematogenous dissemination, penetrating trauma or direct spread
  • — Blood-borne infection can occur anywhere in the brain, but has a predilection for the territory of the middle cerebral arteries
  • —fever ,headache and focal neurological deficits. Brain abscesses are multiple in 10–50 per
  • stages in the evolution of cerebral abscess.
  • —there are four stages
  • —1. Acute cerebritis (the first 4 to 5 days).
  • In early cerebritis, mild central nodular enhancement may be seen on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans
  • abnormal mri brain
  • abnormal mri brain

2. Late cerebritis (at 7 to 10 days). In the late cerebritis stage brain enhancement on CT scans

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain Late cerebritis. A, Gadolinium-enhanced MRI study shows thick, smooth, ringlike enhancement with surrounding edema. B, Gadolinium-enhanced MRI study (coronal view) shows a second small, adjacent ringlike enhancement.

stages in the evolution of cerebral abscess

—3. Early abscess (at 10 to 14 days). Formation of a collagenous capsule by fibroblasts is seen. The central necrotic area is liquefied. Surrounding edema persists.
4. Mature abscess (after 14 days). A decrease in surrounding edema

—gliotic reaction at outer margin of the abscess capsule.

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain

Abscess treated conservatively with antibiotics

abnormal mri brain

  • Abscess caused by gas-forming organism
  • —The most distinctive feature of abscess on imaging is the presence of a smooth, thin capsule with a moderate amount of cerebral edema.
  • — It is located at the corticomedullary junction and usually extends into the white matter.
  • —Nonenhanced CT scans show a low-density area with mass effect and compression of the ventricular system.
  • — rupture of the abscess into an adjacent ventricle {medially into the ventricular system because the medial wall is thinner than the lateral wall

Abnormal mri brain Abscess

abnormal mri brain “Differential diagnosis”

— necrotic primary brain tumor, cystic metastatic tumor, infarction, resolving hematoma, cysticercosis, and thrombosed aneurysm.

image

  • Infarcts often show gyral enhancement, occasionally mimicking ring enhancementThe MRI differential diagnosis of abscess is similar to the CT diagnosis except for hematomas,
  • which can be recognized by their characteristic MRI signal intensity patterns, depending on the age of the hematomas

abnormal mri brain Ependymitis

  • —Ventriculitis, or ependymitis, is an inflammation of the ependymal lining of the ventricular system
  • —\rupture of periventricular abscess or from retrograde spread of infection from the basal cisterns by way of the fourth ventricle
  • —Hydrocephalus may result from intraventricular adhesions and septation caused by organization of intraventricular exudate and debris, resulting in blockage of the interventricular foramina.
  • — A trapped fourth ventricle may result from obstruction of its outlets and the aqueduct because of ependymitis

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain

Gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies show thin, smooth ependymal enhancement in an AIDS patient with cytomegalovirus ependymitis

—The differential diagnosis on CT and MRI studies includes ependymal seeding of intracranial neoplasm. The ependymal enhancement may be irregular or nodular if it is secondary to seeding of neoplasm, the clinical history may be helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis. see below images.

abnormal mri brain

RADIOLOGY-INFORMATION.BLOGSPOT.COM > Abnormal mri brain Ependymitis

abnormal mri brain Tuberculosis

Granulomatous Infection > abnormal mri brain

  • —Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • — very young and very old persons are affected, with the highest incidence in the first 3 years of life
  • —Increased in incidence in immunocompromised patients, drug abusers, and patients with AIDS
  • —Tuberculous meningitis is the most frequent manifestation and tends to involve the basal leptomeninges.
  • Best diagnostic clue
  • o Basilar meningitis + extracerebral TB (pulmonary)
  • o Meningitis + parenchymal lesions highly suggestive.

abnormal mri brain Ependymitis

  • —Ventriculitis, or ependymitis, is an inflammation of the ependymal lining of the ventricular system
  • —\rupture of periventricular abscess or from retrograde spread of infection from the basal cisterns by way of the fourth ventricle
  • —Hydrocephalus may result from intraventricular adhesions and septation caused by organization of intraventricular exudate and debris, resulting in blockage of the interventricular foramina.
  • — A trapped fourth ventricle may result from obstruction of its outlets and the aqueduct because of ependymitis
  • abnormal mri brain
  • abnormal mri brain

Gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies show thin, smooth ependymal enhancement in an AIDS patient with cytomegalovirus ependymitis.

the below The differential diagnosis on CT and MRI studies includes ependymal seeding of intracranial neoplasm. The ependymal enhancement may be irregular or nodular if it is secondary to seeding of neoplasm, the clinical history may be helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis.

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain imaging infection

abnormal mri brain Tuberculous meningitis

  • involve the basal leptomeninges.
  • CT shows -
  • obliteration of the basal cisterns by isodense or slightly hyperdense exudate, which shows diffuse enhancement with IV contrast medium
  • The most useful CT criteria of abnormal basal meningeal enhancement are:
  • (A) linear enhancement of the middle cerebral artery cisterns;
  • (B) obliteration by contrast of the CSF spaces around normal vascular enhancement;
  • (C) Y-shaped enhancement at the junction of the suprasellar and middle cerebral artery cisterns and
  • (D) asymmetry of enhancementabnormal mri brain
    abnormal mri brain
  • MRI depicts the basal meningeal enhancement, hydrocephalus and basal ganglia infarcts with greater sensitivity than CT
  • Late sequelae of tuberculous meningitis include hydrocephalus, infarction, syringobulbia, and syringomyelia.Abnormal mri brain Tuberculous meningitis.
  • abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain

abnormal mri brain tuberculoma

  • found in any portion of the intracranial compartment
  • When tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis are seen together, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is easily made.
  • Tuberculoma pathophysiology
  • • Hematogenous spread (GM-WM junction lesions)
  • • Extension of meningitis into parenchyma via cortical veins or small penetrating arteries.
  • NECT scans isodense, hyperdense, or of mixed density
  • CECT- ringlike enhancement[152] or, less likely, areas of nodular enhancement
  • A central nidus of calcification with surrounding ringlike enhancement, known as the target sign, suggests tuberculoma.
  • Gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies show enhancing patterns similar to those on contrast-enhanced CT scans
  • abnormal mri brain
  • abnormal mri brain
  • abnormal mri brain
  • abnormal mri brain

    abnormal mri brain > T1-weighted image shows isointense to hyperintense capsules with central pus and debris and surrounding edema. B, T2-weighted image shows the abscess capsules with an inner ring of hypointensity and an outer ring of hyperintensity; pus shows hyperintensity, and debris shows hypointensity. C, Gadolinium-enhanced MRI study shows smooth, ringlike enhancement of the abscess capsule

Chest X Ray Imaging